IOT, Software, Wireless

Using cellular technology within different IOT scenarios(Part-2)

This blog post is essentially a summary of my presentation(which can be found here) on application and deployment of 5G within IoT scenarios. which revolves around the following publication: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7397856 In this part of post(previous part : link) we will have a look at: Various Radio Access Technologies within 5G Various Radio Access Networks used in 5G + IoT scenario 5G IOT architectures: OneM2M and SmartM2M So, as mentioned in previous post,RAT is the underlying physical connection method for a radio based communication network like Wifi, bluetooth etc. while RAN is part of a mobile telecommunication system. It implements a…

Continue Reading

IOT, Software, Wireless

Using cellular technology within different IOT scenarios(Part-1)

This blog post is essentially a summary of my presentation(which can be found here) on application and deployment of 5G within IoT scenarios. which revolves around the following publication: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7397856 Content Some basic terminologies Types of IOTs and their requirements MTC Technical requirements IOT communication technologies and their key performance indicator IOT enablers : What all features do we want in 4G-E and 5G for IOT?(Part-2) 5G IOT architectures- SmartM2M and OneM2M (Part-2) Keywords 3GPP – 3rd Generation Partnership Project – The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) is a collaboration between groups of telecommunications standards associations, known as the Organizational…

Continue Reading

BTP, Hardware, memristor

Memristors: Models, Window functions and their SPICE Simulations

This post mainly covers different famous memristor models, window functions along with their SPICE simulations(done on LTSPICE). The window function is used to add non-linearity at the boundaries. In contrast, Models are used to establish a linear/non-linear relationship between the rate of state change and the stimulus (current/voltage). Content: Models Linear Non-linear Threshold Macro-model Window functions Properties of window functions Types of window functions: Struckov Benderli Joglekar Biolek Prodomakis Jinxiang SPICE simulations Memristor Models Linear Ion drift Model (Ideal Model) In this model, there exists a linear relationship between the state derivative and the stimuli(Voltage/Current). It assumes that vacancies have…

Continue Reading

BTP, Hardware, memristor

Memristors : Motivation, Theory and Feasibility

Memristors, the fourth missing element after Inductance, Resistance, and capacitance, is nowadays a scorching topic of research among the electronics community. A large number of papers on its models, applications, and feasibility are now available. In this post, I’ll try to cover most of its background research: Content:- Introduction What are memristors? Characteristics of a memristor Transistor vs. memristor The polarity of a memristor and an analogy Memristor links to chaos theory?[TBD] Motivation well-known problems with present-day computers limitations of CMOS technology Moore’s soul at unrest Theory History Before HP After HP HP’s model Memristive systems Problems with Chua’s memristor…

Continue Reading

File system, RTEMS, RTOS, Software

Setting up YAFFS2 and JFFS2 on RTEMS with flash simulated on a RAM-disk

Hi all, In this post, we’ll look forward to setting up flash file systems namely JFFS2 and YAFFS2 on RTEMS with flash simulated on a RAM-disk. For file system benchmarking purposes, we didn’t actually use them on a real flash(as to eliminate the effect of flash driver’s performance) but implementing them on a real flash won’t be very different from the process given in the later sections of this post. So, let’s begin with JFFS2 first: JFFS2 on RTEMS First reference you will see is of testsuites/fstests/jffs2_support/fs_support.c . Configuration here works up to a large extent unless the size of…

Continue Reading

GSoC, RTEMS, Software

GSoC 2018: Final Report

This is the final report of the work done under GSoC’18 with the RTEMS community. I’ll begin with a summary of all the work done during this summer and will then move towards the corresponding code and documentation developed throughout the timeline.   Porting SDIO driver to RTEMS and benchmarking Student:- Udit Kumar Agarwal Mentors:- Christian Mauderer, Punit Vara Original proposal link: Here Weekly updates:- https://devel.rtems.org/wiki/GSoC/2018#UditkumarAgarwal Project tickets:-  ticket#3429, ticket#3430, ticket#3428 Github Repository:– https://github.com/madaari/GSoC-rtems-18 ABSTRACT RTEMS, being an open-source hard real-time operating system, is already supported by a vast community of developers, hobbyists, and industrialists. With its full application, it…

Continue Reading

ARM, Benchmark, File system, FIO, GSoC, RTEMS, Software

Benchmarking RTEMS Filesystems using FIO

Hi, In this post we will explore FIO’s RTEMS port and how it can be used to benchmark RTEMS filesystems and drivers. First, let’s have a quick look at all the RTEMS filesystems: RTEMS FILESYSTEMS RTEMS supports mainly two types of filesystems: Network and Physical fs. Benchmarking support for networking filesystems isn’t yet available. However, nearly every other physical filesystem can be benchmarked and contrasted. Heap-based file systems are those which uses malloc() for file allocation. In other words, they reside completely on heap memory. These are mainly used to provide basic directory/file management even if there is no dedicated…

Continue Reading

CAM, GSoC, mmccam, RTEMS, SDIO

RTEMS SDIO driver: Current progress

Hi, this post mainly concerns with the current progress of SDIO driver’s implementation on RTEMS. In a nutshell, driver is able to detect, initialize the type of card. However, the part concerned with registering the partitions of the card as RTEMS disks is still buggy. So, I’ll discuss some of the bugs which were previously resolved and the ones that are still left. Starting with a very short introduction of how MMCCAM driver is being interfaced with SDHCI driver: Part 1: Interfacing Complete interfacing task is done mainly via these two files: nexus_devices.h #ifdef RTEMS_BSD_MODULE_MMCCAM SYSINIT_MODULE_REFERENCE(cam); SYSINIT_MODULE_REFERENCE(mmcprobe); SYSINIT_MODULE_REFERENCE(sdda); #endif /*…

Continue Reading

CAM, FreeBSD, GSoC, mmccam, RTEMS, SDIO

Backporting MMCCAM/SDIO framework to FreeBSD head 642b174dadd

My phase 2, GSoC objectives includes Backporting the current(rev: d6756a3ac8 ) MMCCAM framework to FreeBSD head 642b174dadd and then importing it to RTEMS. This post mainly concerns with intricacies and workarounds during the backporting process. Backporting is a process that enables old kernels run a latest driver. MMCCAM framework is one such enhancement in the past few months that enables FreeBSD to talk to devices behind the SDIO bus. It’s a major architectural change, that enables further driver development for devices on SDIO bus. So, first step during backporting is to finalize the revisions from which driver will be imported(d6756a3ac8…

Continue Reading

Benchmark, FIO, GSoC, RTEMS, Software

[GSoC Phase-1] Porting FIO to RTEMS

Hi all, This post covers most of my learnings during phase one of GSoC with RTEMS. My main goal of phase 1 was to port an IO benchmark to RTEMS. Towards this, various benchmarks were compared and fio was finalized for the import. FIO is a pretty much widely accepted and highly configurable IO benchmarking tool, which supports a number of large number of different OS and now RTEMS is among one of them. Following were the major considerations i learned while porting a 3rd party user-space tool to RTEMS(I’ll try to generalize as much as possible, but there will…

Continue Reading